Eradication of Smallpox Polio and COVID-19

Eradication of Smallpox Polio and COVID-19

At the beginning of the 21st century, many epidemiologists and healthcare professionals were concerned about the next potential pandemic or epidemic—and then it arrived in early 2020. Globalization means that when these infectious outbreaks occur, they can spread quickly, but we also have more knowledge and better tools (e.g., vaccine technology) to fight them. For this Discussion, you will compare lessons learned from two successful eradication efforts, that of smallpox and polio, and consider how they may be applied to COVID-19.

Reference:
Glatter, K. A., & Finkelman, P. (2021). History of the plague: An ancient pandemic for the age of COVID-19. American Journal of Medicine, 134(2), 176–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.08.019

To prepare:
Review the Learning Resources, focusing on the smallpox and polio epidemics and how health organizations applied principles of epidemiology to eradicate (or in the case of polio, nearly eradicate) these diseases.
In light of these examples, consider the benefits of addressing smallpox and polio at the population level. What were the population health strategies that were used in the efforts to eradicate smallpox and polio?
Consider similarities and differences from an epidemiologic perspective among the smallpox and polio epidemics and that of COVID-19.
Think about how principles of epidemiology are being applied—or could be applied—to address COVID-19.
What lessons from the use of infectious disease epidemiology in the past might be applicable to controlling COVID 19?
What are the benefits of addressing this issue at the population level as opposed to the individual level?

Part 1
Topic: Eradication of Smallpox, Polio, and COVID-19
By Day 3 of Week 9
Post a cohesive response that addresses the following:
-Briefly summarize the epidemiologic differences among the three diseases and how principles of epidemiology are being applied—or could be applied—to address COVID-19.
-Are there any lessons learned from the use of epidemiology in the eradication of smallpox and polio that could be applied to COVID-19?
-Evaluate the benefits of addressing this health problem at the population level versus the individual level. Support your Discussion with information from this week’s Learning Resources and articles you have located in the Walden Library.

Part 2
Topic: Infectious Disease and Natural Disaster

To prepare:
Consider the role of epidemiologic methods in preparing for or responding to natural disasters.
Focus on global health initiatives, effects of natural disasters on health outcomes, and global health inequities and how they are magnified by natural disasters.
Select a recent (within past 10 years) natural disaster. You may choose an event that occurred in the U.S. or internationally.
Explore the current literature and identify the specific leadership roles that nurses have in mitigating negative health outcomes following disasters.

By Day 3 of Week 9
-Briefly describe your selected recent natural disaster.
-Discuss the health consequences of the disaster at the population level.
-Explain how the concepts of population health and epidemiology discussed in this course were or could have been used to assess health outcomes after this disaster.
-Explain how the concepts of population health and epidemiology discussed in this course were or could have been used to mitigate negative health effects following this disaster.
-Describe the specific leadership roles that nurses have in mitigating negative health outcomes following disasters.

Some Class Resources:-(Please locate additional different articles for both parts other then the resources below).
Please use Subtitle for the questions address in both Parts 1 & 2).

Friis, R. H., & Sellers, T. A. (2021). Epidemiology for public health practice (6th ed.). Jones & Bartlett.

Chapter 12, “Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases”
Center for Global Development. (n.d.). Case 1: Eradicating smallpox. http://www.cgdev.org/doc/millions/MS_case_1.pdf

Note: This article provides an overview of the eradication of smallpox.

Wilson, N., Mansoor, O. D., Boyd, M. J., Kvalsvig, A., & Baker, M. G. (2021). We should not dismiss the possibility of eradicating COVID-19: Comparisons with smallpox and polio. BMJ Global Health, 6(8), e006810. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2021-006810

World Health Organization. (n.d.). Poliomyelitis (polio). https://www.who.int/health-topics/poliomyelitis#tab=tab_1

Note: This page provides an overview of the eradication of polio, as well as symptoms and treatment.

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